New manufacturers

Another producer of rolling stock was the State Railway Car Factory “Pafawag” in Wrocław which derived from the former plant Linke-Hofmann Werke AG. It launched the production of German type Klagenfurt coal wagons (2W), modernising their subsequent versions. After 1960 steel-walled coal wagons were produced. The range of products also included four-axle German passenger carriages C4ü42 and self-designed 1A carriages totalling 1500. The factory was also a manufacturer of 30D43 and 32D43 tenders for steam locomotives. In addition to two-axle coal wagons (7 models), six-axle flat wagons, two-axle covered wagons (28 types), wagons for the transportation of fruit, swine, lime, tank cars for the transportation of cement in bulk (CWL24), sleeping cars, mail and luggage carriages were assembled. In the 1960s the production of four-axle passenger carriages of Y standard (111A, 112A), and local traffic carriages (102A, 120A) was launched.


Pafawag specialised in the production of electric rolling stock. In 1953 – 1957 it manufactured 8 locomotives of E110 series (Bo-Bo) for the reconstructed Warsaw Railway Junction and an identical number of 2E locomotives for the needs of mining industry. Another product of the factory was an electric locomotive of 3E type, based on a Soviet WL21M design, originally identified by PKP as E06 series (ET21). In 1956 – 1971 its delivery volume amounted to 658 locomotives.


Electric locomotives produced by Pafawag in Wrocław

Following the production of 20 vehicles of E53 type (EW53) in 1954 – 1956, in subsequent years (1958 – 1962) the factory manufactured electric traction sets EW55 (72 sets) that were completely designed in Poland. The sets were adapted to lines with high-level platforms. The EN57 (1961 – 1991; 1358 vehicles) could be used on routes with any platform height. In 1990 – 1994 its modernised version (54 vehicles) was produced and it still forms the core of electric rolling stock in Poland. This vehicle was used as a model for electric trains in the Tri-City (1974 – 1980) and on the electrified Kraków – Zakopane (1993 – 1996) line. In 1969 – 1972 the Electric Commuter Railways in Warsaw received 40 vehicles which replaced the long-serving carriages from 1927.


In the early 1960s PKP imported 20 EU06 type locomotives from England and bought a licence to produce them. In 1965 – 1974 Pafawag produced 240 electric locomotives identified as EU07 (4E). In addition, in 1972 – 1976, 15 EP08 locomotives were built for the Warsaw – Poznań line and their maximum speed was 87 mph (140 km/h). The ET22 locomotive (Co-Co, 201E) produced by Pafawag in 1969 – 1989 (1184 vehicles) was a completely Polish design. In the following years, 47 locomotives of the EP09 type (Bo-Bo, 104E) left the factory by 1997. From 1996, when PKP declared its intention to buy new electric locomotives, 42 EU11 one-system locomotives were built.


In 1997 the company was sold to the Adtranz concern and renamed as Adtranz-Pafawag Sp. z o.o., and since 2000 it has been known as Bombardier Transportation Polska Sp. z o.o.. The locomotives produced in Wrocław under the Bombardier logo can be seen on routes in Greece, Germany, Poland, Switzerland, Sweden and the USA.The F160 DC locomotive for freight carriages on difficult routes in the Alps was produced for the Italian Trenitalia railways. ICE trains in operation in Germany and the Netherlands, and Talgo locomotives used in Spain, are also equipped with subassemblies manufactured in Wrocław.


After the war special-purpose wagons, rail cars and their trailers were produced at the Rolling Stock Repair Workshop (ZNTK) in Wrocław.


ZNTK Ostróda also experienced a short period of wagon production. In the early 1970s, it launched two-axle flat wagons for the transportation of containers and two-level flat wagons for the transportation of motor vehicles.


Zastal – inside a production hall

The plant in Zielona Góra was established within the premises of the Bridge and Steel Structure Factory “Beuchelt & Co”. From 1952 it operated as the Marceli Nowotko Metal Industry Plant “Zastal”. Nowadays, it operates as a joint stock company Zastal SA. Its first products after the war included two-axle tankers and 1L refrigerator wagons. In its history Zastal has produced a total of more than 200 thousand wagons, including two- and four-axle covered wagons, two-, four- and six-axle coal wagons, flat wagons, and four- and six-axle self-discharging wagons. It also manufactured diesel locomotives for PKP, but mostly for the needs of Polish industry. At present, the factory builds intermodal low-floor 602S wagons for the transportation of trucks.


The Wagon Repair Workshop in Świdnica (until 1951), now Wagony Świdnica S.A. – welding wagon walls

ZNTK Świdnica, deriving from a repair workshop, was transformed in 1951 into Wagon Factory “Świdnica”. One year later the first batch of four-axle 17W coal wagons was released and until 1959 several hundred wagons of this type were produced every year. It was a very interesting structure because after all side walls were removed, it could be used as a flat wagon for the transportation of armoured tanks. In 1953 the factory in Świdnica commenced the production of 8R tank cars. The main products were two-axle tank cars (for the transportation of, among other substances, acids, soda lye, crude oil, carbon disulfide, carbon dioxide, phenol, glycerol – 16 types in total) and four-axle tank cars (for the transportation of petrol, tar, mazout, propane-butane, sulphuric acid, liquid sulphur, liquid chlorine, liquid fertilizers, carbon dioxide condensate, 50 types in total – including broad-gauge wagons).


The range of wagons was complemented by: coal wagons with low side boards, self-discharging wagons (”talbot” with a tilted body), jar wagons for the transportation of hydrochloric acid, special-purpose wagons (self-discharging wagons for the transportation of aluminium oxide, bulk cement, ground and granulated sulphur), four-axle flat wagons, special-purpose eight-axle well wagons and narrow-gauge wagons. A large portion of the products was exported. At present, the company forms part of the American concern Greenbrier Companies Ltd.


Following the restructuring of ZNTK in Stargard Szczeciński (after 1945 operating on the basis of the local Railway Repair Workshop established in 1859), the Rail Vehicle Works were established in 2000. In the 1960s (in addition to deliveries of tank car chassis for the Wagon Factory Świdnica), they specialised in the production of rail machines, among other things, ballast cleaning machines, ballast distributing and profiling machines, track alignment machines, motor cars, trailers, snowploughs, weed control machines and track tampers. Currently, Rail Vehicle Works produce maintenance trains, electrical power engineering service vehicles, rail tractors, hydraulic platforms, ballast cleaning machines and ballast transport trains, ballast distributing and profiling machines, diesel cars, trailers, bulk material transporters, draisines, shunting tractors, wreck trains and crossover replacement equipment.


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© Całość praw autorskich - Antoni Bochen, Filip Wiśniewski